AP Psychology Extra Credit Vocab
Unit 1: History, approaches and research methods
1. Psychology – the study of the human mind and its functions 2. Empiricism – the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation 3. John Locke – Created idea of “tabula rasa” (blank slate), which means that the mind at birth is blank and we learn from experience. 4. Wilhelm Wundt – did psychology’s first “experiment”, while seeking to measure “atoms of the mind” 5. Consciousness – the awareness of our surroundings
6. G. Stanley Hall – considered the stage of adolescence as simply a change in human experience 7. Structuralism – an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind 8. Edward Titchener – brought the ‘new” experimental psychology to the United States. Studied introspection and structuralism. 9. Introspection- looking inward at the brain’s structure
10. Subject – topic or person
11. Functionalism – a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish 12. William James – Studied functionalism, encouraged exploration of down to earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits and streams of consciousness. Researched memory 13. Stream of consciousness – moment to moment thoughts
14. Sigmund Freud- emphasized the power of the unconscious and sexual drive. Focused on personality and stages of consciousness and psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, and genital). Also psychoanalytical therapy 15. Psychoanalysis- branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders 16. Unconscious - part of the mind unreachable by the conscious 17. Freudian slips – error in speech, memory or physical action that occurs due to an unconscious interference (drive, wish motive) 18. Psychoanalytic theory – personality theory which underlie and guide psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy 19. John Watson – Created idea of behaviorism. Did Baby Albert Experiment (classically conditioning fear). Researched learning 20. Behaviorism- the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. 21. Verifiability – a statement is meaningful only if it is empirically verifiable 22. Behavior – the way in which one acts or conducts itself 23. Nature vs. nurture- major psychological controversy over the relative contributions that genes (nature) and experience (nurture) make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. 24. BF Skinner – Did the box experiment (with the rats) to test his created operant conditioning. Studied learning 25. Strict behaviorists- Viewpoint that operant conditioning was more important than classical conditioning. Believe that all ways of thinking are a product of ones consequences for previous thoughts and behavior. 26. Cognitive-behavioral approach (social-cognitive)- how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures 27. Humanism – emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals’ potential for personal growth 28. Carl Rogers- Humanist: created client-centered therapy and unconditioned positive regard. Treatment of disorders, personality 29. Abraham Maslow – created Hierarchy of Needs, humanistic. Motivation and emotion, treatment of disorders. Self actuization 30. Self-concept- the mental image or perception one has for itself 31. Applied psychology - any of several branches of psychology that seek to apply psychological principles to practical problems 32. Cognitive psychology – study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating 33. Cognition- how we encode, process, store and retrieve information 34. Jean Piaget- developmental psychologist. Created stage theory of...
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