Lasswell's Model of Communication

Topics: Communication studies, Media studies, Communication Pages: 3 (989 words) Published: September 25, 2014
Extract from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lasswell%27s_model_of_communication

Lasswell's model of communication

Lasswell's model of communication (also known as Lasswell's communication model) is regarded by many communication and public relations scholars as "one of the earliest and most influential communication models."[1] The model was developed by American political scientist and communication theorist Harold Lasswell in 1948 while he was a professor at Yale Law School.[2] In his 1948 article, The Structure and Function of Communication in Society, Lasswell wrote that "a convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer the following questions:

Who

Says What

In Which Channel

To Whom

With What Effect?"[3]

Concept and usage

This verbal communication model has been referred to as "a linear and Uni-directional[disambiguation needed] process,"[4] "a one-way process,"[4] an "action model,"[5] a media theory "classic,"[6][7] "widely used segmentation of the communication process,"[6] and "a simple, linear, and potentially hypodermic conceptualization of communication."[7]

The model organizes the "scientific study of the process of communication."[3] The focus of the model is broken down by each element of communication: "'who' refers to the communicator who formulates the message; 'what' is the content of message; 'channel' indicates the medium of transmission; 'whom' describes either an individual recipient or the audience of mass communication; 'effect' is the outcome of the message..."[8] The movement of the message travels from the communicator to the audience. Although this model represents a one-way flow of communication, the 'effect' also refers to feedback in public relations.[9] The model can be used in pedagogical settings to teach students major elements of a communication process and as a starting point for developing hypotheses.

Lasswell stated, the “Who” referred to “control analysis,” the “Says What”...

References: 1. Shoemaker, Pamela; Tankard, Jr., J. and Lasorsa, D. (2004). How to Build Social Science Theories. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p. 109.
2
3. Lasswell, Harold (1948). Bryson, L., ed. The Structure and Function of Communication in Society. The Communication of Ideas. New York: Institute for Religious and Social Studies. p. 117.
Shoemaker, Pamela; Tankard, Jr., J. and Lasorsa, D. (2004). How to Build Social Science Theories. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p. 120.
Shoemaker, Pamela; Tankard, Jr., J
Real, Michael R. (1980). "Media Theory: Contributions to an Understanding of American Mass Communications". American Quarterly 32 (3): 240. doi:10.2307/2712449.
Lubkin, D
Steinburg, Sheila (2007). An Introduction to Communication Studies. Cape Town: Juta & Co. p. 53.
Reddi, C
Muth, R.; Finley, M.; Muth, M. (1990). Harold D. Lasswell: An Annotated Bibliography. New Haven: New Haven Press. pp. 117–118.
Berger, A
Braddock, Richard (1958). "An Extension of the "Lasswell Formula"". Journal of Communication (8): 88–93.
Real, Michael R
McQuail, Denis; Windahl, Sven (1993). Communication models for the study of mass communications (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. p. 13.
McQuail, Denis; Windahl, Sven (1993)
Baran, S.; Davis, D. (1995). Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future. Belmont: Wadsworth. pp. 251–253.
Greenberg, B
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