Advertising and promotion

Topics: Advertising, Brand, Communication Pages: 29 (10350 words) Published: November 25, 2013
Advertising Communication Models
John R. Rossiter, N.S.W. Institute of Technology
Larry Percy, HEM/CREAMER, Inc.
ABSTRACT - A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. These models: assist managerS to set complete advertising objectives, help creative specialists to articulate purpose, and increase the validity of advertising pre-tests. [ to cite ]:

John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy (1985) ,"Advertising Communication Models", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, eds. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Moris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 510-524.

Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, 1985      Pages 510-524 ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODELS
John R. Rossiter, N.S.W. Institute of Technology
Larry Percy, HEM/CREAMER, Inc.
A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. These models: assist managerS to set complete advertising objectives, help creative specialists to articulate purpose, and increase the validity of advertising pre-tests. Advertising communication models are theories about "how advertising works." These theories or models attempt to explain and describe, at the individual buyer or consumer level, the process by which advertising communicates with and effectively persuades individuals to take action. Managers operate with these theories or models, explicitly or implicitly, whenever they create, approve, or test advertising. Most available theories or models share one of two common faults: (1) they are either singular versions of the hierarchy-of-effects notion (e.g., Colley 1961; Ehrenberg 1974; Howard and Sheth 1969; Krugman 1972; Lavidge and Steiner 1961; McGuire 1976; Rogers 1962) whereas it is evident that advertising works in at least several different ways rather than via a single process; (2) or else the theories acknowledge multiple processes but focus inordinately on the role or location of brand attitude as a communication objective (e.g., Ray and Webb 1974; Ray 1982; Smith and Swinyard 1982; Vaughn 1981) while ignoring other necessary steps in the advertising communication process. The purpose of the present article is to provide a new interpretation of previous approaches and to extend the context of advertising communication models to incorporate the other inputs that advertising managers need. Firstly, a general structure of the necessary components of an advertising communication model is provided. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models. Thirdly, advertising tactics for these models are listed. Finally, major implication for the process of pre-testing advertising are discussed. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODELS

A complete account of the overall advertising process requires at least six steps (Figure 1). The last two of these steps are concerned with marketing objectives, to which advertising must contribute, namely: sales or market share, leading to profit for the firm. These will not be discussed further in this article. [The present article is based on several chapters from a forthcoming book by the authors to be published by McGraw-Hill. A more detailed exposition of the points summarized here can be found in those chapters. For the present article, the authors would like to acknowledge the comments of Robert J. Donovan, then visiting associate processor of marketing at New York University, Geraldine Fennell of Fordham University, as well as,research personnel at Ogilvy & Mather/New York and Ogilvy & Mather/Australia.] FIGURE 1


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