Advertising Communication Models
John R. Rossiter, N.S.W. Institute of Technology
Larry Percy, HEM/CREAMER, Inc.
ABSTRACT - A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. These models: assist managerS to set complete advertising objectives, help creative specialists to articulate purpose, and increase the validity of advertising pre-tests. [ to cite ]:
John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy (1985) ,"Advertising Communication Models", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, eds. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Moris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 510-524.
Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, 1985 Pages 510-524 ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODELS
John R. Rossiter, N.S.W. Institute of Technology
Larry Percy, HEM/CREAMER, Inc.
A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. These models: assist managerS to set complete advertising objectives, help creative specialists to articulate purpose, and increase the validity of advertising pre-tests. Advertising communication models are theories about "how advertising works." These theories or models attempt to explain and describe, at the individual buyer or consumer level, the process by which advertising communicates with and effectively persuades individuals to take action. Managers operate with these theories or models, explicitly or implicitly, whenever they create, approve, or test advertising. Most available theories or models share one of two common faults: (1) they are either singular versions of the hierarchy-of-effects notion (e.g., Colley 1961; Ehrenberg 1974; Howard and Sheth 1969; Krugman 1972; Lavidge and Steiner 1961; McGuire 1976; Rogers 1962) whereas it is evident that advertising works in at least several different ways rather than via a single process; (2) or else the theories acknowledge multiple processes but focus inordinately on the role or location of brand attitude as a communication objective (e.g., Ray and Webb 1974; Ray 1982; Smith and Swinyard 1982; Vaughn 1981) while ignoring other necessary steps in the advertising communication process. The purpose of the present article is to provide a new interpretation of previous approaches and to extend the context of advertising communication models to incorporate the other inputs that advertising managers need. Firstly, a general structure of the necessary components of an advertising communication model is provided. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models. Thirdly, advertising tactics for these models are listed. Finally, major implication for the process of pre-testing advertising are discussed. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODELS
A complete account of the overall advertising process requires at least six steps (Figure 1). The last two of these steps are concerned with marketing objectives, to which advertising must contribute, namely: sales or market share, leading to profit for the firm. These will not be discussed further in this article. [The present article is based on several chapters from a forthcoming book by the authors to be published by McGraw-Hill. A more detailed exposition of the points summarized here can be found in those chapters. For the present article, the authors would like to acknowledge the comments of Robert J. Donovan, then visiting associate processor of marketing at New York University, Geraldine Fennell of Fordham University, as well as,research personnel at Ogilvy & Mather/New York and Ogilvy & Mather/Australia.] FIGURE 1
References: Bauer, R.A. (1967), "Source Effect and Persuasibility: A New Look," in Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, D.F. Cox, ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 559-578.
Belch, G.E. (1982), "The Effects of Television Commercial Repetition on Cognitive Responses and Message Acceptance," Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (June), 56-65.
Bettman, J.R. (1979), "Memory Factors in Consumer Choice: A Review," Journal of Marketing, 43 (Spring), 37-53.
Cialdini, R.B., R.E. Petty, and J.T. Cacioppo (1981), "Attitude and Attitude Change," Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 357-404.
Colley, R. (1961), Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results, New York: Association of National Advertisers.
Ehrenberg, A.S.C. (1974), "Repetitive Advertising and the Consumer," Journal of Advertising Research, 14 (April), 25-34.
Fennell, G. (1975), "Motivation Research Revisited," Journal of Advertising Research, 15 (June), 23-27.
Fennell, G. (1978), "Consumers Perceptions of the Product-Use Situation," Journal of Marketing, 42 (April), 38-47.
Finn, D.W. (1982), "Try It, You 'll Like It: A Case Against the Low-Involvement Hierarchy," Texas Christian University, M.J. Neeley School of Business, working paper no. 6.
Fishbein, M. and I. Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA; Addison-Wesley.
Harris, R.J., T.M. Dubitsky, R.L. Perch, C.S. Ellerman, and M.W. Larsen (1980), "Remembering Implied Advertising Claims as Facts: Extensions to the 'Real World '," Kansas State University, Department of Psychology, working paper no. 80-2.
Houston, M.J. and M.L. Rothschild (1977), "A Paradigm for Research on Consumer Involvement," University of Wisconsin-Madison, Graduate School of Business, working paper no. 11-77-46.
Hovland, C.I., I.L. Janis, and H.H. Kelly (1953), Communication and Persuasion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Howard, J.A. and J.N. Sheth (1969), The TheorY of Buyer Behavior, New York, Wiley.
Kelman, H.C. (1958), "Compliance, Identification, and Internalization: Three Processes of Opinion Change," Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2 (Summer), 51-60.
Krugman, H.E. (1965), "The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement," Public Opinion Quarterly, 29 (Fall), 349-356.
Krugman, H.E.(1972), 'Why Three Exposures May Be Enough," Journal of Advertising Research, 12 (December), 11-14.
Lavidge, R.J. and G.A. Steiner (1961), "A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness," Journal of Marketing, 25 (October), 59-62.
Little, J.D.C. (1979), "Decision Support Systems for Marketing Managers," Journal of Marketing, 43 (summer), 9-26.
Lutz, R.J. and ;.B. MacKenzie (1981), "Construction of a Diagnostic Cognitive Response Model for Use in Commercial Pretesting," University of California, Los Angeles, Graduate School of Management, working paper no. 110.
Maloney, J.C. (1962), "Curiosity Versus Disbelief in Advertising," Journal of Advertising Research, 2 (June), 2-8.
Mandler, G. (1979), "Emotion," in The First Century of Experimental Psychology, E. Hearst, ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 275-321.
McGuire, W.J. (1969), "The Nature of Attitudes and Attitude Change," in The Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 3, G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, eds., Reading, MA: Addison-WesleY. 136-314.
McGuire, W.J. (1976), "Some Internal Factors Influencing Consumer Choice," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (March). 302-319.
Mitchell, A.A. and J.C. Olson (1981), "Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude?," Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (August), 318-332.
Naples, M.J. (1979), Effective Frequency: The Relationship Between Frequency and Advertising Effectiveness, New York: Association of National Advertisers. Inc.
Nelson, P.E. (1970),"Information and Consumer Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, 78 (March/April), 311-329.
Percy, L. and J.R. Rossiter (1980), Advertising StrategY: A Communication Theory Approach, New York: Praeger.
Perloff, R.M. and T.J. Brock, (1980), "And Thinking Makes It So: Cognitive Responses to Persuasion," in Persuasion: New Directions in Theory and Research, M.E. Roloff and G.R. Miller, eds., Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 67-99.
Peter, J.P. and Tarpey, L.X. (1975), "A Comparative Analysis of Three Consumer Decision Strategies," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (June), 29-37.
Petty, R.E. and Cacioppo, J.T. (1979), "Issue Involvement Can Increase or Decrease Persuasion by Enhancing Message Relevant Cognitions," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (June), 1915-1926.
Petty, R.E. and Cacioppo, J.T. (1983), "Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: Application to Advertising," in L. Percy and A.G. Woodside, eds., Advertising and Consumer Psychology, Lexington, MA:Lexington, 3-23.
Petty, R.E., Ostrom, T.M.., and Brock, T.C., eds. (1981), Cognitive Responses in Persuasion, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Preston, I.L. (1982), "The Association Model of the Advertising Communication Process," Journal of Advertising, 11 (no. 2), 3-15.
Ray, M.L. (1982), Advertising and Communication Management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ray, M.L. and P.R. Webb (1974), "Three Learning Theory Traditions and Their Application in Marketing," in Combined Proceedings: American Marketing Association Conference, R. Curham, ed., Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, 100-103.
Robertson, T.S. (1971), Innovative Behavior and Communication, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Rogers, E.X. (1962), Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press.
Rossiter, J.R. and L, Percy (1980), "Attitude Change Through Visual Imagery in Advertising," Journal of Advertising, 9 (Winter), 10-16.
Rossiter, J.R. and L. Percy (1981), "Visual Communication in Advertising," Columbia University, Graduate School of Business, working paper no. 231-A.
Rossiter, 3.R. and L. Percy (1983), Draft chapters for text, Advertising and Promotion Management, New York: McGraw-Rill, available from authors.
Schlinger, M.J. and L. Green (1980), "Art-work Storyboards Versus Finished Commercials," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (December), 19-23.
Shimp, T.A. and J.T. Yokum (1982), "Advertising Inputs and Psychophysical Judgments in 'ending-Machine Retailing," Journal of Retailing, 58 (Spring), 95-113.
Smith, R.E. and W.R. Swinyard (1982), "Information Response Models: An Integrated Approach," Journal of Marketing, 46 (Winter), 81-93.
Thorson, E. and M.L. Rothschild (1983), "Using a Text Comprehension Analysis to Compare Recognition and Recall of TV Commercials," in Advertising and Consumer Psychology, L. Percy and A.E. Woodside, eds., Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Vaughn, R. (1981), "Row Advertising Works: A Planning Model," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (October), 27-33.
Webster, F.E. and Y. Wind (1972), Organizational Busing Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Wells, W.D. (1981), "How Advertising Works," Mimeo, Chicago, IL: Needham, Harper & Steers Advertising, Inc.
Wright, P.L. (1980), "Message-Evoked Thoughts: Persuasion Research Using Thought Verbalizations," Journal of Consumer Research, 7 (September), 151-175.
Wyer, R.S. (1974) Cognitive Organization and Change: An Information Processing Approach, Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zajonc, R. (1980), "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences," American Psychologist, 35 (February), 151-175.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document