Effective Use of Celebrity Endorsement as an Advertising Strategy

Topics: Marketing, Advertising, Brand Pages: 11 (2892 words) Published: October 18, 2010
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This literature review purpose is to attain a better understanding of effective use of celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy. The types of sources covered when conducting this research included journals, articles, books and dissertation which relevant to the celebrity endorsement. There are four main parts need to be emphasis, first is the history and background, second is evaluation of three theories model; which consists of TEARS model shows celebrity play an important role in facilitating advertising effectively, The Meaning Transfer Model refers to the description of endorsement process and Elaboration Likelihood Model which deals with circumstances and situation of endorsed product and target audience. Thirdly is consumer behavior affect purchase intention and lastly is review about the negative publicity of endorser.

2. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
Celebrity endorser refers to a famous person who makes use of his or her recognition through a consumer product by showing it in an advertisement (McCracken, 1989). By definition, a celebrity is a well-known persona such as entertainer, actor, or athlete who is being identified by public for his or her achievements in the areas additional to the product category endorsed (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Therefore, McCracken’s definition give a clear view about the celebrity endorsement is the activity of utilize celebrity publicity to endorse a product in advertising.

Since late nineteenth century, celebrities were involved in endorsing activities nevertheless, celebrity endorsement had became a standard practice since 1980s (Choi et al., 2005). Historically, British actress Lillie Langtry was the world’s first celebrity endorser when she appeared on Pears Soap package in 1893 (Morin, 2002). The popularity of using celebrity endorsers in America increased from 15 to 25 percent in 1979 to 1997 and these days, more than 20 percent of majority television commercials feature celebrities (Belch and Belch, 2001). Nowadays, famous artists, athletes, models and even dead personalities are used to endorse products (Shimp, 2003). Beyonce Knowles endorsed for L’Oreal, David Beckham for Gillette and Tyra Banks for Victoria Secret; these celebrities have become symbols and role of endorser in today’s advertising (Forbes, 2009).

3. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT MODEL THEORIES
In this section, three model theories related to celebrity endorsement in advertising are demonstrate. 3.1 TEARS MODEL

rustworthiness
xpertise
ttractiveness
espect
imilarity

Figure 1: TEARS MODEL
Source: Shimp, 2003

Shimp (2003) devised this model showing the celebrity play an important role in facilitating advertising effectively. There are five attributes in this model (see Figure 1). The first attribute is Trustworthiness, which refers to believable and dependable. Shimp (2003) claimed that celebrity trustworthiness depends on the consumer’s perception towards endorser’s motivation. The second attribute is Expertise; it is about having certain skills, abilities and knowledge that associated with endorsed product. The way of consumer perceives the endorser is much important because when endorser is perceived as an expert, he or she is able to alter consumer opinion (Shimp, 2003). The third attribute is Attractiveness, this involve endorser characteristics, physical attractiveness, lifestyle and intellectual skills (Shimp, 2003). Consumer may imitate the celebrity they like in reality, so more often the consumer persuasion happens through identification of the endorser attractiveness. For example, tennis player Anna Kournikova, she never won any competition in the tour but through endorsement she earns approximately 10 million dollars per year (Christian and Rikard, 2004). Respect is the fourth attribute in TEARS model, it represents the professional of celebrities in different career are being admired such as their athletic skills, singing talents, acting abilities and...

References: Petty, R.E. and Cacioppo, J.T., (1986), Advertising and Consumer Psychology. New York: Lexington Books.
Shimp, T.A., (2003). Advertising Promotion: Supplemental aspects of integrated marketing communications. 5th ed. Forth worth, Tex.: Dryden.
Journals
Choi, S.M., Lee, W.-N., Kim, H.-J., (2005)."Lessons from the rich and famous: a cross-cultural comparison of celebrity endorsement in advertising", Journal of Advertising, 34(2), pp.85-98.
Darin, W.W., Lucretia, G. and Nick, W., 2008. “The effects of negative information transference in the celebrity endorsement relationship”. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. [online] 37 (4), pp 332-335.
Daneshvary R. and Schwer, R. K., (2000). “The association endorsement and consumers intention to purchase”. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 17(3), pp.203-213.
Erdogan, Z. B., Baker, M. and Tagg, S., (2001). Selecting celebrity endorsers: The practitioner 's perspective. Journal of Advertising Research. [online] 41(3), pp.39-48.
Friedman, H.H. and Friedman, L., (1979). “Endorser effectiveness by product type”. Journal of advertising research, 19(5), pp.63-71.
Goldsmith, R., Lafferty, B. and Newell, S., (2000). The impact of corporate credibility and celebrity credibility on consumer reaction to advertisements and brands. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 43-54.
Hsu, C-K. and McDonald, D., (2002). “An examination on multiple celebrity endorsement in advertising”. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11(1), pp.19-29.
Kamins, M.A., (1989). Celebrity and noncelebrity advertising in a two-sided context. Journal of Advertising Research, 29 (3), pp.34.
Liu, M., Huang, Y. Y. and Jiang, M., (2007). Relations among attractiveness of endorsers, matchup, and purchase intention in sport marketing in China. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24(6), 358-365.
Lord, K.R., Lee, M-S. and Sauer, P.L., (1995). The Combined Influence Hypothesis: Central and Peripheral Antecedents of Attitude toward the Ad. Journal of Advertising, 3(33), pp.73-75.
Louie, T.A., Kulik, R.L., Johnson, R., (2001). "When bad things happen to the endorsers of good products", Marketing Letters. [online] 12(1), pp.13-23.
Miciak, A.R., and Shanklin, W.L., 1994. “Choosing celebrity endorsers”. Jourmal of Marketing Management, 3 (3). 50-59.
Pornpitakpan, C., (2003). The effect of celebrity endorsers ' perceived credibility on product purchase intention: The case of Singaporeans. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 16, 55-72.
Stephenson, M.T., Benoit, W.L. and Tschida, (2001). Testing the Mediating Role of Cognitive Responses in the ELM. Communication Studies, 1(1) pp.324-337.
McCracken, G., (1989). Who is the Celebrity Endorser? “Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process”. Journal of consumer research, 16(12), pp.310-321.
Till, B.D., (1998). Using celebrity endorsers effectively: lessons from associative learning. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7 (5), pp.400-409.
Till, B.D. and Shimp, T.A., (1998). "Endorsers in advertising: the case of negative celebrity information", Journal of Advertising. [online] 27 No.1, pp.67-82.
CNBC, 2009. Tiger Woods’ Sponsors Are Already Reassessing Ties. [online]
Available from: http://www.cnbc.com/id/34392450
Craig, G. and Timothy, J.M., 2008. The Role of Celebrity Endorsements in Politics:
Oprah, Obama, and the 2008 Democratic Primary
Forbes, 2009. The Celebrity 100. [online].
Johansson, J., and Sparredal, J., 2002. Celebrity Endorsements a Case Study of Axa and the Ludmila Engquist Incident. [On-line].
Johanna, R.J. and Regina, S., 2006. The Subject of Celebrity Endorsement: What is was and what it has become. [online].
Morin, R., 2002. When Celebrity Endorsers Go Bad, Washington Post. [online].
New Straits Time, 2005. Chong Wei is 100PLUS brand ambassador. [online].
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • celebrity are paid for endorsement Essay
  • Essay on How Effective Are Celebrity Endorsements
  • Celebrity Advertising Essay
  • Celebrity Endorsement Essay
  • Celebrity Endorsement Essay
  • Essay on Celebrity Endorsement
  • Essay on Celebrity Endorsements
  • Essay about Celebrity Endorsement

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free