1. Cognitive Development Theory
Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2)
The child develops a physical understanding of her or his environment through touching, seeing, hearing, and moving around. The child learns the concept of object permanence. (ex. toy exist even when not in sight)
Preoperational stage (2 to 7)
Children learn to use symbols. For example they learn to represent a car with a block, moving the block around. They learn to use language to express increasingly complex ideas. However, they still have difficulty seeing things from another person’s viewpoint.
Concrete operational stage (8 to 12)
Children learn to discern cause and effect. They can anticipate possible consequences of an action without having to try it out. They begin to understand the views of others. They also understand that quantities remain the same even when their shape or form changes. (ex. Same amount of water poured into a tall skinny glass or short fat glass)
Formal operational stage (13 and older)
Children can reason using abstract concepts. They can understand future consequences and evaluate the probable outcomes of several alternatives. They can evaluate their own thoughts and consider major philosophical issues, such as why pain and suffering exist.
2. Parenting Styles
Authoritarian Parenting- Parents who use an very demanding, rigid, punitive. They expect absolute obedience from their children and often use forceful measures to control their behavior.
Permissive Parenting- Parents are usually warm and responsive but undemanding. They place few requirements on their children for orderly behavior or household task.
Authoritative Parenting- Parents are demanding. They impose rules and standards of behavior but they are also responsive and supportive. They encourage autonomy and self-reliance and uses positive reinforcement rather than harsh punishment.
Uninvolved Parenting- parents are neither supportive nor demanding because they are indifferent. They spend little time interacting with their children and know little about their whereabouts or interests.
3. Latchkey kids are children who return home after school and let themselves in to an empty house or apartment, where they are alone and unsupervised until their parents or adult comes home. 4. Globalization-the growth and spread of investments trade production communication and new technology around the world. 5. Wealth- is the money and economic assets that a person or family owns 6. Income- is the amount of money a person receives usually through wages or salaries but it also can include rents interest savings accounts dividends on stock or the proceeds from a business. 7. Glass ceiling- women hit a collection of attitudinal and organizational biases in the workplace that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions. 8. Battered- woman syndrome-a condition that describes a woman who has experienced many years of physical abuse and feels incapable of leaving her partner. A. Phase One- The Tension-Building Phase-minor battering occurs woman tries to reduce her partner’s anger by catering to him or staying out of his way. B. Phase two- The Acute Battering Incident- partners explodes in rage and beating or otherwise abusing his partner. C. Phase Three- Calm (The “Honeymoon Phase”)- partner begging for woman’s forgiveness and promising that he will never beat her again. Give up whatever cause his anger, He say.
Baby Boomers, now in their late 40s and early 60s, are often referred to as the sandwich generation because they must care not only for their own children but also their aging parents.
9. Phases of Separation
Preseparation-the partners may fantasize about what it would be like to live alone, escape from family responsibilities, or form new sex liaisons.
Early Separation- besides feeling ambivalent about leaving a marriage. Questions arise about what tell family, friends, children teachers. Who get what...
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