Nanotechnology in Information Technology—Applications
the computer industry is already working on a nanoscale. The current production range is at 90 nil). 5 nm gates have been proven in laboratories, although they cannot he manufactured yet. By 2010 wordwide about $300 billion worth of semiconductor production oil! be nanotechnology based (including nanocomponents such as nanolayers. nanoscale treated in or other nanostructures). and by 2015 about S500 billion. Since. nanotechnology can reduce its basic features. CMOs will continue being used for a decade or more. The intermediate future will have CMOs married to a generation of nanodevices as yet undefined, because there are many alternatives, and it is still too earl' to tell which will prevail. One solution could be hybrid structure exploiting the advantages of today's CMOs technology (integration and scaling of transistors and high functional in on a small support). With off-chip opt-electronic interconnects to overcome the throughput bottlenecks. 9.1. I Report Highlights • The global market for nanotechnology will increase from $11.6 billion in 2007 to an estimated $12.7 billion bs the end of 2008. It should reach $27 billion in 2013. a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16.3%. • Nanomaterials dominated the market in 2007. accounting for 87% of the total market. This is expected to decrease to 69.2% by 2013. • Electronics, biomedical and consumer applications have high projected growth rates of 30.3%. 56.2% and 45.9% over the next 5 years. Semiconductor development priorities by 2015. as the focus shifts from scaling and speed to system architecture and integration with user specific applications for bio-nanodevices to food
9.2 MANUFACTURED NANOPARTICLES
The term "manufactured nanoparticles- refers to particles that ha N e a physical size of less than 111(1 mil in at least two dimensions and are deliberately produced rather than merely emerging as a by -product in activities. not targeted for the production of these particles such as combustion processes or welding. While a more rigorous definition would have to take more parameters such as size distribution, diffusion diameter into account, the term nanoparticles shall be used in a rather broad sense including agglomerates and aggregates of the primary particles. Nanoparticles exist in arious forms such as powders. suspensions or dispersed in a matrix. In theory, manufactured nanoparticles can be produced from nearly any chemical: however. most nanoparticles that are currently in use have been made from transition metals, silicon. carbon (carbon black. carbon nanotrates. fullerencs) and metal oxides. Quite a few of these nanoparticles have been produced for several decades on an industrial scale. but various new materials such as carbon nanotubes. fullerenes or quantum dots have been discovered only within the last two decades. The development of nanomaterials is progressing rapidly, and the variety of "makes- is increasing ith considerable speed 9.3 NANOMATERIALS
Material properties—electrical. optical. magnetic. mechanical and chemical—depend on their exact dimensions. can be manipulated to develop nanomaterials. or devices on the scale of atoms or small groups of atoms. Nanotechnology makes it possible to manufacture lighter, stronger and programmable materials that require less energy to produce than conventional materials. produce less waste than conventional manufacturing and promise beneficial use in wide variety of fields. At the same time. significant challenges must be overcome for the benefits of nanotechnology to be realized. Scientists must learn how to manipulate and characterize individual atoms and small groups of atoms reliably. New and improved tools are needed to control the properties and structure of material at the nanoscale.Significant improvements in computer simulations of atomic and molecular structures are essential to the understanding of this realm....
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