The Effectiveness of Advertising: a Literature Review

Topics: Marketing, Advertising, Marketing research Pages: 8 (2332 words) Published: February 18, 2012
The effectiveness of advertising: a literature review

Elisabetta Corvi
Associate Professor of Economics and Business Management
University of Brescia
corvi@eco.unibs.it

Michelle Bonera (corresponding author)
Assistant Professor of Economics and Business Management
University of Brescia
+39 333 2341484
mbonera@eco.unibs.it

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to propose a simple approach to monitor and control the encoding phase, too often neglected by the doctrine and operators in the communication process. The paper is discusses a possible methodology to investigate the degree of coincidence / discordance between what is conveyed through the advertising and what is actually understood by some consumers. The object of investigation is the verbal text of the spot in order to verify the level of understanding of the message and, if necessary, to find the reasons of a wrong perceived meaning.

Introduction
Advertising effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which advertising generates a certain desired effect. Measuring the effects of advertising is very important, given the amount of investments needed for advertising. While it is not possible to obtain a global measure of the advertising effectiveness, we should seek to develop and apply methods and measures for a partial verification of results. Regarding the difficulty of measuring the overall effectiveness, we believe that it is due essentially to the following considerations:

advertising interacts with other business variables (behavior, marketing policies, financial decisions etc.) and environmental variables (competition, economic conjuncture etc.), hardly isolable; •the effects of advertising are varied and not always translatable into quantitative terms; •advertising causes long-term effects, not always, therefore, the results occur in the same period in which are the costs.

In literature and practice the evaluation of advertising effectiveness has used two basic models:

the dichotomous model;
the three-dimensional model.

The dichotomous model is applied mainly in product and brand advertising, tending to isolate and evaluate separately the following:

sales effect;
communication effect.

The sales effect refers to the assessment of the capability of advertising to affect the sales volume and/or the market share, regardless of the possible influence of other variables. For Batra et al. (1995), the effectiveness of advertising should be considered for its effect on sales in the short term. This advertising performance measurement is based on the marginal theory (Chamberlin, 1948). The advertising is therefore regarded as an independent variable that can be combined with other marketing variables to have a certain effect on the dependent variable, i.e. sales. The aim is to seek the best combination of the determinants of the sales increase.

The effect of communication refers to the ability to reach, with appropriate messages, a more significant share of public. Such effect is examined in literature with different approaches:

sociological;
semiotic;
psychological;
socio-psychological.

Sociological analysis focuses on the community, considered as a system governed by rules and social norms, and on the social behavior (Moingeon, 1993). The role of advertising and consumption in the society change is a very fertile topic. Sociology has examined how advertising influences opinions, attitudes and behaviors of individuals and social groups. There are two opposite sociological perspectives to the advertising function in contemporary society. The first maintains a positive approach to advertising. It is believed that the role advertising is to better organize economic and social relations, to harmonize social behaviors, to make people adhere to common values and to help them to better live together without problems. The second approach is, by contrast, rather critic, because...

Bibliography: Aaker D.A., Norris D. (1982), «Caracteristics of Television Commercials Perceived as Informative », Journal of Advertising Research, aprile.
Barthes R. (1964), Rhétorique de l 'image, Communications, 4.
Batra R., Lehman D.R., Burke J., Pae J. (1995), «When does advertising have an impact, A Study of Tracking Data», Journal of Advertising Research, 35,4.
Batra R., Ray M.L. (1986), «Affective Responses Mediating Acceptance of Advertising», Journal of Consumer Research,13.
Bogart L. (1996), «What Forces Shape the Future of Advertising Research», Journal of Advertising Research, 16, 1.
Brasini S., Tassinari F., Tassinari G. (1993). Marketing e pubblicità: approccio statistico all’analisi dei mercati di consumo. Bologna: il Mulino.
Broadbent S. (1980), Price and Advertising, Volume and Profit, ADMAP, novembre.
Brown D.E. (1991), Human Universels, McGraw Hill, NY.
Brown S.P., Stayman D.M. (1992), «Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude toward the Ad: A Meta-analysis», Journal of Consumer Research,19.
Burke M.C., Edell J.A. (1989), «The Impact of Feelings On Ad-Based Affect and Cognition», Journal of Marketing Research, 26.
Cacioppo J.T., Petty R.E. (1982), «The Need For Cognition», Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42.
Calder B.J., Tybout A.M. (1987), «What Consumer Research is…», Journal of Consumer Researches, 14.
Chamberlin E. H., The Theory of Monopolistic Competition, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
Harvard University Press, 1948.
Corvi E. (2007), La comunicazione aziendale. Obiettivi, tecniche, strumenti, Egea, Milano.
Durand J. (1970), Rhétorique et image publicitaire, Communications, 15.
Eco U. (1979), The Role of the Reader, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Ekman P., Friesen W.V., Ancoli S. (1980), «Facial Signs of Emotional Experience», Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39.
Fabris G. (1992), La Pubblicità. Teoria e prassi, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Fishbein M., Ajzen I. (1975), «Attitudes about Objects As Predictors of Single and Multiple Behavioral Criteria», Psychological Review, 81, 1.
Floch J. (1992), Semiotica, marketing e comunicazione, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Friedman G
Gardner M.P. (1985), «Does Attitude Toward the Ad Affect Brand Attitude Under a Brand Evaluation Set? », Journal of Marketing Research, 22.
Gorn G. (1982), «The Effects of Music in Advertising and Choice Behavior: A Classical Conditioning Approach», Journal of Marketing, 46, inverno.
Greimas A. J. (1968), La semantica strutturale: ricerca di metodo, Rizzoli, Milano.
Healey J.S., Kassarjian H.H. (1983), «Advertising Substantiation and Advertiser Response: A Content Analysis of Magazine Advertisements», Journal of Marketing, 47, 1 .
Hoch S.J., Young W.H. (1986), «Consumer Learning: Advertising and the Ambiguity of Product Experience», Journal of Consumer Research, 13.
Holbrook M.B., Batra R. (1987), «Assessing the Role of Emotions As Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising», Journal of Consumer Research, 14.
Janiszewski C., Warlop L
Jex C.F. (1987), «Short-term Modelling of Advertising Effectiveness: A Confirmation of Braodbent 's Model», Journal of Market Research Society, 27, 4.
Kapferer J.N. (1990), Les chemins de la persuasion, Dunod, Paris.
Kaul A., Wittink D.R. (1995), «Empirical Generalisations About the Impact of advertising on Price Sensitivity and Price», Marketing Science, 14.
Krugman H. (1965), «The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning without Involvement», Public Opinion quarterly, 29, autunno.
Kuehn A.A. (1962), «How Advertising Performance Depends On Other Marketing Factors», Journal of Advertising Research, 2, 2.
Losito G. (1993), L 'analisi del contenuto nella ricerca sociale, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Lutz R.J. (1975), «Changing Brand Attitudes Throught Modifications of Cognitive Structure», Journal of Consumer Research, 1.
Maclnnis D.J., Jaworski B. (1989), «Information Processing from Advertisements: Toward an Integrative Framework», Journal of Marketing, 53.
Marbach G., Fabi C. (2000). L’efficacia della pubblicità: investimenti, valutazioni, risultati, Isedi, Torino.
Mick D.G. (1986), «Consumer Research and Semiotics: Exploring the Marphology of Signs, Symbols and Significance», Journal of Consumer Research, 13.
Mitchell A., Olson J.C. (1981), «Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude? », Journal of Marketing Research, 18.
Mittelstaedt R.A
Moingeon B. (1993), «La sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu et son apporet au marketing», Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 8, 2.
Nelson P. (1970), «Information and Consumer Behavior», Journal of Political Economy, 78.
Ray M. (1982), Advertising and Communication, Prentice-Hall lnc, Englewood Cliffs.
Scott L.M. (1994), «The Bridge from Text to Mind: Adapting Reader Response Theory to Consumer Research», Journal of Consumer Research, 21.
Semprini A. (1993), Marche e mondi possibili, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Tuzzi A. (2003), L 'analisi del contenuto, Carocci, Roma.
Verma V.K. (1980), «A Price Theoretic Approach to the Specification and Estimation of the Sales- Advertising Function», Journal of Business, 53, 3.
Wright P.L. (1974), «Analysing Media Effects on Advertising Responses», Public Opinion Quarterly, 38, estate.
Zajonc R.B. (1980), «Feeling and Thinking, Preferences need no interferences», American Psychologist, 35, 2.
Zajonc R.B., Markus H. (1982), «Affective and Cognitive Factors in Preferences», Journal of Consumer Research, 9.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Literature Review Essay
  • Literature Review Research Paper
  • Essay about Marketing Research Literature Review
  • Literature Review Essay
  • review of literature Essay
  • Literature Review Essay
  • Essay on Literature Review
  • Essay on Literature review on building team effectiveness

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free