The London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the City of London in the United Kingdom. As of December 2011[update], the Exchange had a market capitalisation of US$3.266 trillion (short scale), making it the fourth-largest stock exchange in the world by this measurement (and the largest in Europe). The Exchange was founded in 1801 and its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square close to St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. The Exchange is part of the London Stock Exchange Group.
1.1 Coffee House
1.2 Royal Exchange
1.3 First Rule Book
1.4 Foreign and regional exchanges
1.5 The Exchange before the World Wars
1.6 First World War
1.7 Second World War
1.9 IRA bombing
1.10 "Big Bang"
1.11 Occupy London
2.1 Primary markets
2.2 Secondary markets
4 Information services
5 Post trade
7 M&A activity
7.1 Borsa Italiana
7.4 NASDAQ bids
7.5 Proposed merger with TMX Group
8 Opening times
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
HistoryCoffee HouseThe Royal Exchange had been founded by Thomas Gresham on the model of the Antwerp Bourse, as a stock exchange. It was opened by Elizabeth I in 1571.
During the 17th century, stockbrokers were not allowed in the Royal Exchange due to their rude manners. They had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, notably Jonathan's Coffee-House. At that coffee house, a broker named John Casting started listing the prices of a few commodities, exchange rates and certain key provisions such as salt, coal and paper in 1698. Originally, this was not a daily list and was only published a few days of the week.
This list and activity was later moved to Garraway’s coffee house. Public auctions during this period were conducted for the duration that a length of tallow candle could burn; these were known as "by inch of candle" auctions. As stocks grew, with new companies joining to raise capital, the royal court also raised some monies. These are the earliest evidence of organized trading in marketable securities in London.
Royal ExchangeAfter Gresham's Royal Exchange building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London, it was rebuilt and re-established in 1669. This was a move away from coffee houses and a step towards the modern model of stock exchange.
The Royal Exchange not only housed brokers but also merchants and merchandise. This was the birth of a regulated stock market, which had teething problems in the shape of unlicensed brokers. In order to regulate these, Parliament brought out an act in 1697 that levied heavy penalties, both financial and physical to those brokering without a licence. It also set a fixed number of brokers (at 100), which was later increased as the size of the trade grew. This invariably led to several problems of its own, one of which was that the traders had started leaving the Royal Exchange, either by their own virtues or through expulsion and had started dealing in the streets of London. The street in which they were now dealing was known as Change or Exchange Alley which was suitably placed close to the Bank of England. Parliament tried to regulate this and ban the unofficial traders from the Change streets.
Companies became weary of "bubbles" when companies rose quickly and fell, so they persuaded Parliament to pass a clause preventing "unchartered" companies from forming.
After the Seven Years War (1756–1763), trade at Jonathan's coffee house boomed again. In 1773, Jonathan, together with 150 other brokers, formed a club and opened a new and more formal "Stock Exchange" in Sweeting's Alley. This now had a set entrance fee, through which traders could enter the stock room and trade securities. It was, however, not an exclusive location for trading, as trading also occurred in the Rotunda of the Bank of England. Fraud was also rife during...
References: 5.Jump up ^ Bomb Blast Rips London 's Stock Exchange; No Injuries Reported : Terrorism: Apparent IRA warning allows time to evacuate the building and surrounding area. - Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com (1990-07-21). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
6.Jump up ^ London Stock Exchange Is Rocked by a Bombing - New York Times. Nytimes.com (1990-07-21). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
7.Jump up ^ Davies, Caroline (16 October 2011). "Occupy London protest continues into second day". The Guardian (London).
8.Jump up ^ "Stock exchange occupation blocked"
9.Jump up ^ "Occupy London: Protest continues for second day". BBC News Online (London). 16 October 2011.
10.Jump up ^ Leo King (2011-02-14)
11.Jump up ^ "Get the Facts: The London Stock Exchange". YouTube. [copyright violation?]
12.Jump up ^ Ajay Shah (2009-07-04)
13.Jump up ^ "London Stock Exchange to replace Tradelect with Millennium". London: ComputerWeekly.com. 2009-09-04.
14.Jump up ^ Rowena Mason (2008-09-10)
15.Jump up ^ "London Stock Exchange trading hit by technical glitch". BBC News. 2009-11-26.
16.Jump up ^ David M
17.Jump up ^ "London Stock Exchange Rejects .NET For Open Source". Slashdot. 2009-10-06.
18.Jump up ^ Patrick, M.; Lucchetti, A., Reilly, D., Taylor, E
19.Jump up ^ "Scottish Widows says has sold 2.7 mln LSE shares at 1,175 pence". Forbes. 2006-04-12. [dead link]
20.Jump up ^ Ortega, E
21.Jump up ^ MacDonald, A.; Lucchetti, A. (2006-05-04). "In LSE Stakes, Nasdaq Advances, Euronext Falls". The Wall Street Journal. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
22.Jump up ^ Lucchetti, A.; MacDonald, A
23.Jump up ^ Goldsmith, B.; Elliott, M. (2006-05-19). "Nasdaq raises LSE stake, making rival bids harder". Reuters. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
24.Jump up ^ Lucchetti, A.; MacDonald, A
25.Jump up ^ "LSE rejects £2.7bn Nasdaq offer". BBC News. 2006-11-20.
26.Jump up ^ [dead link]
27.Jump up ^ "Statement re lapse of Nasdaq’s offer". londonstockexchange.com. 2007-02-10.
28.Jump up ^ "Sale Update"
29.Jump up ^ Magnusson, N.; McSheehy, W. (2007-09-20). "Dubai to Buy Stakes in Nasdaq, LSE; Strikes OMX Deal". bloomberg.com. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
30.Jump up ^ "LSE agrees merger with TMX of Canada"
Please join StudyMode to read the full document