Advertising is a key for the economy of consumers. Without it, people would face difficulty knowing what services and products are available. Adverting indeed is vital to a prosperous social order. It is also the financial basis of important contemporary mass media (John Vivian, 1997: 315). Advertising performs the dual role of informing and entertaining in the media. It informs us of the products and services that are available for us to buy and use. Along the way, it also entertains us with some amusement, witty, or clever use of words and photos. Media advertising has another vital function. It helps offset the price of the media communication itself to customers. If we didn’t have ads on radio or television, the expense of programming would need to return through taxes, government monies, or sponsorships (Helen Katz, 2003: 5-7).
Advertisers know the value of product placement. As the personal media turned into the standard and mass media fragment, advertisers are again trying how they reach consumers. More dollars of total advertising budgets are diverted to more targeted technologies while a smaller percentage will be spent on traditional media. Data mining and personalized electronic approaches are increasingly critical to marketplace success. Researchers and advertisers used data mining process to see what websites a person visits, what media the consumer uses, what did she/he buy and other to uncover economic data and demographic to define and classify prospective customers. Looking out databases for prior purchase information and assumptions concerning spending habits based on each home’s location, provides advertisers with clues on how to focus on specific customers (Peter B. et al, 2007. P. 254). For many decades, the newspaper, magazine, radio and television media have been the main sources for manufacturers to advertise their products (Wilson, James and Wilson, Stan Le Roy.998.P.319).
In this essay, we are going to find out how has the relationship between media and advertising changed in 20th century? And how both worked together? Our focus will be on radio, television and Internet, because they came to exist in 20th century and had a big influence on the world of advertising. After giving a short history of advertising, we will discuss them one by one.
History of Advertising
The first advertising was oral, in ancient times used by barkers in the marketplace shouting the wares of merchants. Nowadays some advertisements are still oral. If we tune in television we will hear barkers shouting the stuff of automobile dealers. The history of outdoor advertising can go back to posted notices on papyrus in ancient Egypt for runaway slaves. Notices of runaway slaves and bond servants, with rewards offered, may have been the first written advertising, instead of something for sale. During all the centuries of slavery such notices were posted for the logical reason that these valuable pieces of property did not enjoy their life's condition (Irving Fang, 1997: 61). Even at this early point in the history, advertisements were of key importance, when it came to informing consumers about new products. Coffee is one of such example; in the Middle East coffee was introduced as a drink for the first time, in the fifteenth century. The quick spread of coffee as both a drink and a pattern of behaviour (coffeehouses became social gathering places) advertising of coffee's benefits was taking a huge place in newspapers (Mediaknowall). Advertising agency was another facet of advertising in the late nineteenth century, an American phenomenon which spread to Europe and then all over the world. The notion of agency began earlier in the century in France, where newspaper publishers considered the acceptance of ads directly from advertisers as beneath their dignity. Instead, they retailed space in bulk to contractors who sold the space to those with goods to sell. Later on, this concept was adopted by American...
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