Unit 6 questions
1) Along with railroads, the Republicans’ protective tariffs helped build other U.S. industries, including textile and steel manufacturing in the Northeast and Midwest and (through a tariff on imported wool) sheep ranching in the West. Tariffs also funded government itself. Tariffs provided the largest share of revenue for the treasury, and helped fund the projects. 2) Farmers on the Great Plains faced the challenge of a hostile environment. In the grasslands, a cloud of grasshoppers could descend and destroy a crop in a day; a prairie fire or hailstorm could do the job in an hour. In spring, homesteaders could face sudden, terrifying tornados. In the winter, blizzards followed. Over the long term, homesteaders discovered that the western grasslands did not receive enough rain to grow wheat and other grains. Despite the belief that “rain followed the plow,” the cycle of rainfall shifted from wet to dry. While farmers and homesteaders faced vast problems, the large scale on which hydraulic mining was done wreaked large-scale havoc on the environment. What remained in most cases was a ravaged landscape with mountains of debris, poisoned water sources, and surrounding lands stripped of timber. 3) Reconstruction and large harmful effects to the environment allowed Yellowstone to be built, it also allowed for a preservation area to help preserve the animal habitats and allow for species to thrive. 4) Before the Civil War, Congress reserved the Great Plains for nomadic peoples. But in the era of railroads, steel plows, and Union victory, Americans suddenly had the power and desire to incorporate the whole plains, causing reservation wars to form due to disputes over land. These wars were nasty and messy. 5) Due to their peace policy, breaking up of native lands and forming reserves, and Europeanizing them essentially believing they were making them better as people. The reserves played a huge part in that, they believed it was a favor being done. 6) Despite their humane intentions, peace advocates’ condescension was obvious. They ignored dissenters like Dr. Thomas Bland of the National Indian Defense Association, who suggested that instead of an “Indian problem” there might be a “white problem”; the refusal to permit Indians to live according to their own traditional ways. Chapter 17:
1) The United States became an industrial power by tapping North America’s vast natural resources, including minerals, lumber, and coal, particularly in the newly developed West. Steam engines replaced human and animal labor, and kerosene replaced whale oil and wood. Many companies incorporated vertical integration and vicious sales tactics. 2) Middle workers took on entirely new tasks, directing the flow of goods, labor, and information throughout the enterprise. Middle workers were key innovators, counterparts to the engineers in research laboratories who, in the same decades, worked to reduce costs and improve efficiency. 3) Initially, through the deskilling of labor under a new system of mechanized manufacturing that industrialist Henry Ford would soon call mass production. Women also began to hold menial wage jobs in factories and worked equally to men. Many skilled men also originally worked underneath a self-imposed boss and worked their own hours, paid for what they produced vs. an hourly wage. Many companies attempted to get rid of that ideal, and place these independent workers on a larger scale scenario. 4) Many native-born Americans viewed immigrants with hostility; they also feared that immigrants would compete for jobs and erode wages. 5) Greenbackers advocated laws to regulate corporations and enforce an eight-hour limit on the workday. They called for the federal government to print more greenback dollars and increase the amount of money in circulation; this, they argued, would stimulate the economy, create jobs, and help borrowers by allowing them to pay off debts in dollars that, over time,...
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