Which Factors Make Advertising Effective?

Topics: Marketing, Advertising, Graphic design Pages: 14 (5121 words) Published: November 22, 2012
EUROPEAN BUSINESS SCHOOL LONDON REGENT’S COLLEGE FALL TERM 2012

Which factors make advertising effective?
A marketing literary review based on the Hierarchy of Effects, with a focus on the role of Music in Advertising Report by Onofri S. S00603638 Word Count: 2364 Supervisor Prof. Gordon Bowen Advertising and Media in the Marketing Environment (MKT5A5)

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Summary
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………......... Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… 1 2

A Basic Condition ………………………………………………………………. 2 The HoE model: three responses to be aroused ………………….. 1) Cognitive Response …………………………………………………. 2) Affective Response …………………………………………………. 3) Conative Response ………………………………………………….. The role of Music in Advertising 1) Cognitive Purpose 2) Affective Purpose 3) Conative Purpose RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………. 2 5 6 7 9 9 9 9 10

…………………………………………………. …………………………………………………. ………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………..

CONCLUSIONS …………………………………………………………………… 10 Appendices …………………………………………………………………… 11 …………………………………………………………… 13 List of References

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ABSTRACT
“What makes advertising effective?”: this Report aims to answer this essential issue because it is the key for achieving –or not- the goals pursued by every company that invests in advertising. The general question has been divided in three areas, depending on the type of consumer’s response that advertising aims to arouse: cognitive, affective or conative, according to the famous Hierarchy of Effects model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner in 1961. In addition, the report focuses on the role of Music in advertising, with the purpose to highlight how its use can help to achieve efficacy in advertising. Five recommendations are identified through the report. Advertisers should first choose the media mix able to reach as many consumers as possible from the target audience (Ogilvy, 1985). Using appealing creativity (Dahlen et Al, 2010) and increasing the frequency of the message (Pickton and Broderick, 2005) is required to pass successfully through all the selective phases of consumers’ influence process, in order to make them memorize the contents of advertising. Music can be very helpful both for gaining consumers’ attention and giving a mnemonic quality to the message (Sutherland, 2008). An effective way to build an emotional link with consumers is referring to common culture (Godin, 1999). Jingles are able to involve consumers, at the point that they can become part of consumers’ cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). It is necessary to understand how the purchasing decision is taken by consumers in order to affect their behaviour; the FCB matrix by Vaughn (1986) identifies four types of purchasing process and suggests the quantity and quality of information to provide for each of them in order to have an impact on the decision making process. Since music sets up an entertaining mood, its use appears to be appropriate for the feel products and not for the think products (Arens et Al, 2011). As most of these factors refers to the ability of understanding consumers’ minds, the report has confirmed that psychology represents a basic support for marketing functions as the making of effective advertising (Foxall et Al, 1998).

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INTRODUCTION
This paper aims to identify the factors which make advertising effective. The research starts stating a basic condition then, since “efficacy is the ability to bring about the intended result” (Oxford dictionary, 2007), the report analyses which are the marketing objectives pursued by advertising. The Hierarchy of Effects Model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner (1961) is considered pivotal in the communication process. Accordingly, the report uses a tripartite approach in order to better isolate and identify the factors that make advertising successful whether the response sought from consumers is cognitive, affective or conative. The report then operates a specific analysis on the role of Music in advertising,...

References: BOOKS
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Gabrielsen, J., 2010. The power of Speech. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag. .. consulted as an ebook at < http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fsdrKSPV3cUC&printsec=frontcover&hl=it&source=gbs_ge_su mmary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false> [access date: 15-10-2012] Ogilvy, D., 1985. Ogilvy on advertising. New York: Vintage Books editions. Dahlen, M., Lange, F. and Smith, T., 2010. Marketing Communications: a Brand Narrative Approach. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Arens W.F., Weigold M.F., Arens C., 2011. Contemporary advertising & Integrated Marketing Communications, 13th edition. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Sutherland, M., 2008. Advertising and the mind of the consumer: what works, what doesn’t and why, 3rd edition. Australia: Griffin Press. Belch G.E, Belch M.A, 2009. Advertising and Promotion: an Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, 8th edition. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Fill, C., 2009. Marketing Communications: Interactivity, Communities and Content, 5th edition. Harlow: Pearson Education. McCarthy, Jerome E. (1960). Basic Marketing. A Managerial Approach. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
JOURNALS
Barry, T.E., and Howard D.J., 1990. A Review and Critique of the Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 9, 121-135. Accessed at: http://fabriken.akestamholst.se/akestamholst/files/critique_of_the_hierarchy_of_effects.pdf Lavidge, R.C. and Steiner, G.A. , 1961. A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 25, 59-62. Cited in Barry and Howard, 1990. McWilliam,G., 1997. Low involvement brands: is the brand manager to blame?. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 15 Iss: 2, pp.60 – 70. ... consulted at < http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=854369&show=abstract>
Vaugh, Richard (1980), "How Advertising Works: A Planning Model," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (September/October), 27-30; and (1986), "How Advertising Works: A Planning Model Revisited," Journal of Advertising Research, 26 (January/February), 27-30
Oakes, S., 2007. Evaluating Empirical research into Music in Advertising a Congruity perspective”. Journal of Advertising Research, march 2007, pp. 38-50 Cowles, D.L. and Kiecker, P. 1998. Reconceptualising the promotional mix: the challenge of a changing marketing communications environment. Proceedings of the American Marketing Association Conference, Vol. 9, pp. 15-25. .. cited in: Caemmerer, B., 2009. The planning and implementation of integrated marketing communications. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 27 (Issue: 4), 16pages. Available through: Emerald Insight < http://www.emeraldinsight.com/> [access date: 12-10-2012]
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